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Madrid Chronology

XIII CENTURY MADRID

1212 Madrid’s public militia participate in the battle of Navas de Tolosa 1217 St. Francis of Assisi founds San Francisco monastery in Madrid 1218 Santo Domingo de Guzmán founds Santo Domingo the Royal Monastery 1248 Fernando III confirms the demarcation between Segovia and Madrid

XIV CENTURY MADRID

1309/29/39 Parliament in Madrid

1346/45? Alfonso XI grants a decree that is thought to mark the beginning of Madrid City Hall. The documentation uses the term “personal assets” for the very first time. The steward is responsible for the administration of municipal finances.

1348 Alfonso XI sets up the government in Madrid

1381 Juan I orders that the governors choose several commoners to inform them of the problems of the municipal treasury

1391 Massacre of Jews 1808-1813 Joseph Bonaparte orders the demolition of congested areas to turn them into squares and public thoroughfares. He establishes the area now occupied by Plaza de Oriente

XV CENTURY MADRID

1433-1435 Parliament in Madrid. The town is recognized as a city with a representation in Parliament.

1460 The extension of Plaza del Salvador begins

1463 Privileges are given to the City for having a weekly market and San Miguel and San Mateo fairs.

1470 The governors agree not to donate or expropriate goods from the City

1477 A chief magistrate is established permanently in Madrid

1479 Pedro Zapata founds Rejas Monastery

1489 The construction of a Municipal Abattoir is authorized

1492 Expulsion of the Jews and destruction of the Jewish quarter of Lavapiés. The paving of Madrid’s streets begins

1495 Construction of the Abattoir begins

XVI CENTURY MADRID

1503 Foundation of San Jerónimo the Royal Convent

1518 The Pope authorizes the construction of a chapel in honour of San Isidro

1518 Madrid joins the “comunero” movement

1520 Madrid has to surrender because of Villalar’s defeat

1523 The Domenicans install themselves in Virgen de Atocha hermitage

1525 Francis I of France is imprisoned in Torre de los Lujanes

1528 Parliament in Madrid. The empress Isabel orders the construction of San Isidro hermitage

1547 The Augustine convents of San Felipe Neri and Trinidad Descalza are founded

1561 Philip II establishes the capital in Madrid

1562 Philip II acquires the fields and orchards which would later become Casa de Campo

1566 Philip II orders a wall be built, the third in its history

1590 Construction of Casas de la Panadería

1592 Construction of Agustinos Recoletos convent

1596 Construction of the city’s first General Hospital

1599 Construction of the first Puerta de Alcalá

MADRID, XVII CENTURY

1601 Philip II transfers the capital to Valladolid

1606 Construction of Santa Bárbara Convent. Madrid finally becomes the capital.

1616 The Diana – Mariblanca fountain is placed in Puerta del Sol

1616-19 Philip III orders the construction of Plaza Mayor

1618 Philip III acquires and extends the land which is now Parque del Retiro with gardens and fountains

1622 Construction of Encarnación Convent. Celebrations for the canonization of San Isidro

1625 Philip IV orders the construction of Madrid’s fourth wall which remains standing until the mid XIX century

XVIII CENTURY MADRID

1710 Construction of Palacio Goyaneche, which was occupied by the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in 1773

1717 Palacio de Uceda Palace becomes Palacio de Consejos

1719 Reconstruction of Puente de Toledo

1720 Construction of Conde-Duque Barracks

1722-1726 Construction of San Fernando Hospice, currently the City Museum

1734 The Royal Palace is destroyed by fire

1738 The reconstruction of the Royal Palace begins. The work goes on until 1764.

1750-1758 Construction of las Salesas Reales convent

1759 The reign of Charles III, “Mayor of Madrid”, begins

1761-1770 Construction of San Francisco el Grande Basilica

1766-1768 Construction of the Post Office, which now houses the Presidency of Madrid region

1761 Parque del Buen Retiro opens to the public

1769 Construction of the Royal Customs House (currently the setting of the Ministry of Finance)

1769-1778 Construction of Puerta de Alcalá

1775 The construction of Salón del Prado begins

1776 Reconstruction of the General Hospital (now Reina Sofía Museum)

1777 Construction of Palacio de Benavente (currently the Ministry of Defence)

1781 Creation of the Royal Botanical Gardens

1785-1854 Construction of the Palace/Prado Museum

1787 First official census: 156,672 inhabitants. The construction of the Cemeteries on the outskirts of the city begins

1790-1854 Final reconstruction of Plaza Mayor

1798 Construction of San Antonio de la Florida Hermitage

MADRID, XIX CENTURY

1818 Foundation of the Prado Museum

1832 Gas lighting in the city centre. From 1848 this lighting system is extended to dwellings

1833-1855 Sale of church lands give rise to the refurbishment of buildings in the city centre

1834-1836 Paving of streets and creation of the Municipal Cleaning Service

1844-1851 Construction of the railway from Madrid to Aranjuez

1851-1858 Construction of the railway from Madrid to Paris

1855-1864 Alterations and extension of Plaza de la Puerta del Sol

1857-1861 Reform and amplification of the Plaza de la Puerta del Sol

1860 Approval of the Madrid Development Project awarded to Carlos María de Castro

1863 The construction of Barrio de Pozas begins: 21 properties in five blocks

1866 Isabel II places the first stone of the National Libraryl

1868 The wall constructed in 1625 is demolished. All of the Retiro’s gardens are opened to the public

1870 The construction of Barrio de Salamanca begins

1871 Inauguration of the first horse-drawn tramline from Serrano to Barrio de Pozas – Argüelles, passing through Puerta del Sol

1881 Introduction of electric lighting on public thoroughfares

1883 Alfonso XII presides the inauguration of Moncloa Model Prison

1884 Construction of Banco de España begins on the grounds formerly occupied by Palacio de Alcañices, and ends in 1891

1892 The project for Ciudad Lineal designed by Arturo Soria is approved

1898 Inauguration of the first tramways, Sol-Serrano and Recoletos – Hippodrome

MADRID, XX CENTURY

1900-1914 The South and West railway network (“cornisa del Manzanares”) is completed. The south becomes more industrial

1904 Approval of the Gran Vía project presented by the architects López – Sallaverry and Octavio

1907 The registration of motor vehicles circulating in Madrid since 1898 begins

1910 Alfonso XIII inaugurates the demolition works to open Gran Via. The first stores – bazaars, specialized shops, banks, insurance companies, cinemas and offices spring up around this road

1919 Inauguration of the metropolitan Railway Sol-Cuatro Caminos by Alfonso XIII

1929 Start of the construction of Ciudad Universitaria. International tender put out by City Hall for improvements to the Inner city and Urban development of the outlying area

1932 Start of the construction of Nuevos Ministerios on the former grounds of the hippodrome

1931-1936 Casa de Campo opens to the public

1934-1942 The current viaduct over Calle Segovia is built, replacing the XIX century iron structure

1936-1939 The districts of west Madrid are partially destroyed by bombing during the Civil War

1939 Constitution of Madrid Reconstruction Council

1941 The General Plan for Urban Development (Bigador Plan) is drawn up and approved in 1946

1946 Creation of the Urban Development Office for Madrid and surrounding areas

1946-1963 Madrid Urban Development Office develops 9,200 hectares on which 100,000 dwellings are constructed, by both private (extension of the Castellana, Extension of General Mola, Barrio de la Estrella, Prosperidad, etc) and public enterprise (Gran San Blas, La Elipa, El Tercio, San Cristobal, Orcasitas, Caño Roto, Entrevías, Fuencarral, etc..

1947 Creation of the City Transport Company. Approval of the Castellana Extension Project

1948-1954 Annexation by Madrid City Hall of 13 neighbouring towns: Aravaca, Barajas, Canillas, Canillejas, Chamartín de la Rosa, Fuencarral, Hortaleza, El Pardo, Vallecas, Vicálvaro, Villaverde, Carabanchel Alto and Carabanchel Bajo.

1949 Inauguration of the first underground car park in Plaza de Vázquez de Mella

1954 Start of the construction of the area of San Blas

1959 Start of the construction of Barrio del Pilar and Moratalaz

1961 Inauguration of the suburban railway Plaza de España-Carabanchel

1963 The Town Planning Office becomes the Planning and Coordination Commission for the Madrid Metropolitan Area (COPLACO). Entrusted with carrying out the General Town Planning Project of 1963. The Metropolitan area is made up of 23 towns.

1967 Inauguration of Chamartín Station and the tunnel linking Atocha and Chamartín. In 1971 Chamartín Station is extended to its current size.

1967-1968 Remodelling of Barrio de Pozas for the construction of a shopping and hotel complex

1974 Inauguration of the Autopista de la Paz y del Manzanares (M30 motorway). Madrid has half a million circulating motor vehicles.

1978 The underground ceases to be a private company. It is 53 kilometres long, and the extension project estimates 131 km.

1979 3 April. First municipal elections of the democracy. Enrique Tierno Galván is elected mayor by the PSOE and PCE coalition.

1979-1989 Development of the District Remodelling Programme involving the construction of 38,000 dwellings in 29 operations.

1980 Approval of the “Special Plan for the Protection and Preservation of Historic-Artistic Buildings in the city of Madrid. The Review of Madrid’s General Town Planning project begins.

1983 The House of Commons approves the Statute of Autonomy of Madrid Region. Madrid 2 Shopping Centre in la Vaguada opens

1985 The government council of Madrid Region approves the General Town Planning Project. The Consortiums of Madrid-South and Valdebernardo are formed, that plan the construction of 6,980 and 6,000 dwellings respectively. Dismantling of Atocha flyover and construction of an underpass between Ronda de Valencia and Paseo de María Cristina

1989 In the October Plenum, Plan 18,000 is approved. It involves the acquisition of land for the construction of dwellings to re-house residents in substandard housing and slums.

1990 Inauguration of the National Music Auditorium in calle Príncipe de Vergara. The city operation known as Pasillo Verde Ferroviario (a consortium made up of City Hall and Renfe) begins. It will mean that the land occupied by the railway tracks linking the former stations of Peñuelas, Imperial, Delicias and Atocha can be developed. This operation involves the construction of 1,230 dwellings.

1991 26 May. In the Council Elections the PP obtains 47% of the votes. José María Alvárez del Manzano is elected mayor of the city.

1992 Madrid, Cultural Capital of Europe. During the year the following are inaugurated: the new Puerta de Atocha railway station and the AVE Madrid-Sevilla line, Reina Sofía National Art Centre, Thyssen Bornemisza Museum, the City Museum, Teatro Madrid, Casa de América (formerly Palacio Linares), Arganzuela Greenhouse, Parque Juan Carlos I, Moncloa Lighting and Communications Tower.

1993 Inauguration of Campo de las Naciones Conference Centre

1995 The circle line of the underground (line 6) is completed

1996 Link between Príncipe Pío and Atocha stations via Pasillo Verde Ferroviario.

1997 Final approval of the new Town Planning Project. Inauguration of Estación Sur de Auobuses replacing the existing bus station in calle Canarias. Inauguration of the last section of the M-40 motorway (Carrretera de Colmenar – Carretera de la Coruña).

1998-1999 The following underground lines are extended: Lines 4 and 8: Esperanza – Mar de Cristal – Santa Maria – Recintos Feriales – Barajas Airport. Lines 8 and 10: Alonso Martínez – Nuevos Ministerios. Line 7: Avenida de América – Gregorio Marañón – Pitis. Line 9: Pavones – Vicálvaro – Rivas Vaciamadrid – Arganda. Line 1: Miguel Hernández – Congosto and Line 11: Plaza Elíptica – Pan Benito.

1999-2000 The Development Programme (PAU) for Arroyo Fresno is approved

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